Visite Rio Claro

Histórico da Industrialização de Rio Claro

ATIVIDADE ECONOMICA INDUSTRIALIZAÇÃO
FASE PIONEIRA: 1873 – 1928


É natural que cessados os contatos entre fazendeiros, muitos colonos passaram a exercer seus antigos ofícios. Atribui-se o fracasso do sistema de parceria agrária à origem urbana dos imigrantes, porém se essa origem foi fator negativo para a agricultura, foi positivo para as cidades vizinhas de Ibicaba, para onde os imigrantes se dirigiam e onde surgiram pequenas industria e o artesanato.

 

Foto: O lançamento da Cerveja em lata aconteceu em Rio Claro em 1971.

Em 1873 existiam 46 estabelecimentos dos quais apenas 9 eram chamadas de fábrica. A produção de calçados, chinelos, colchões e massa alimentares era feita em pequenos estabelecimentos domésticos baseado em trabalho familiar. A produção era praticamente local ou atendia vilas próximas a Rio Claro. Em 1876, a estrada de ferro liga Rio claro a Campinas, São Paulo e Santos, dando impulso à urbanização e a industrialização.

Em 1892 são instaladas as Oficinas Mecânicas da Companhia Paulista de Estrada de Ferro com 2000 empregados. A Cervejaria Rio Claro é fundada em 1899, na primeira metade do século 19 ocorre a fabricação de material de uso da própria Estrada de Ferro que conta com 900 empregados em 1922. Também merece ser citada a fábrica de cigarros “Princesa do Oeste” fundada em 1913 com 50 empregados. A serraria Schmidt e Meyer, a partir de 1917, pasou a produzir madeiramentos, forros e assoalhos.

Dois ramos de industria se expandem de forma rápida:os de bens de consumo (cerveja, refrescos, calçados, pães e doces) e a produção de materiais, de construção (cal, telhas, esquadrias). Em 1927 Rio Claro tinha 142 estabelecimentos industriais. Sampaio chama atenção sobre a enexistência da industria têxtil na fase pioneira de Rio Claro ramo que lidera a industrialização de muitas de muitas cidades da região sudeste.

A acumulação e reaplicação de capitais em muitas cidades paulistas fez com que os imigrantes se tornassem “burgueses” (Matarazo, Jafet, Crespi, Simonsen) que demonstraram interesse em investir na industria a partir de 1880. A nível local atuaram os mesmos elementos: a burguesia cafeeira, os agentes de importação e exportação, o imigrante, aqui simples trabalhador ou, quando muito, pequeno capitalista.

“Se na economia rural dominada pelo café os produtores chamam-se Camargo Aranha, Feraz Sampaio, Correa Fontes, Arruda penteado, Araujo Lima, portanto todos de origem luso brasileira, na economia urbana – industrial os fabricantes de cerveja eram Stern, Schneider, Mecatti, os empresários da fundição de metais e fabricação de máquina, carros, charretes chamam-se Meyer Walter, Hoefling, Ciarrochi, Leonardo, Reif, Kleiner; Krettlis desempenhava as funções de tipógrafo; os Timoni, Gasbarro, Mamprini, Lazzarini, faziam o trabalho de couro e produziam selas, calçadas, e chinelos.

Ante tais evidências, podemos concluir que o imigrante estrangeiro desempenhou papel fundamental na industrialização do município” (Sampaio, 1987).

Recentemente as maiores industrias da fase pioneira reduziram suas atividades, como é o caso das Oficinas da Fepasa (ex Paulista) ou fecharam suas portas como a metalúrgica Bruno Meyer e a Cervejaria Reunidas Skol-Caracu.

Fontes:
Sampaio, S.S.A industrialização de Rio claro, ver, geografia, Unesp, 1987.
Troppmair, H. 170 anos de imigração Alemã, Arquivo Histórico do Municipio de Rio claro, 1994.

ASPECTOS ECONOMICOS INDUSTRIALIZAÇÃO FASE TRADICIONAL 1930 – 1968

Com a quebra da bolsa de Nova Yorque ocorre a ruptura do modelo agrícola de exportação. Inicia-se a fase da industrialização nacional e local que substitui as importações. Os centros urbanos brasileiros que apresentaram já uma base industrial passaram a se desenvolver e, o mais beneficiado, foi o estado de São Paul, Rio Claro pouco se beneficiou deste impulso, aliás entra num período de estagnação e retratação populacional (50.000 hab. em 1920 passa para 42.000 em 1940). A pequena industria existente se retraiu por falta de capitais, por problemas administrativos e não adaptou à novas tecnologias. A grande industria continuou a se desenvolver e algumas novas fábricas surgiram. Porém, a Serraria Schmidt, a fábrica de cigarros Princesa Doeste, fábrica de charretes, todas da fase pioneira, encerraram suas atividades. Nas décadas de 1940 a 1970 o crescimento industrial foi pequeno, tanto em números de estabelecimentos como em mã-de-obra (2178 operários em 1940 e 3963 em 1970).


Na fase tradicional que estamos resumindo aqui baseado na pesquisa de Sampaio, foi introduzida a industria têxtil, que dava emprego à mão-de-obra feminina. Em 1939 instalaran-se as industrias Reunidas Francisco Matarazzo com808 operários e a E. F. Saad Cia. O ramo têxtil chegou a ter 11 unidades, porém foi gradativamente reduzido na década de 70.


A industria têxtil, de minerais não metálicos e de bebidas dominara a década de 60. Na fase “tradicional“ o parque industrial de Rio Claro era formado principalmente Poe pequenos estabelecimentos (1940: 155 estabelecimento e 2.178 empregados; 1950: 222 est. e 3.607 emp. 1960: 316 est. e 3.074 emp: 1970: 358 est. e 3.963 emp.). Cito algumas industrias daquele período: industrias alimentares , fábrica de Balas São João, Laticínios Rio Claro, abate de aves: Fricock, Zucchi, Saad, Bebidas: Caninha Três Fazendas Mãe Preta, D’Abronzo, Casonato, vestuário e Calçados: Gury, Codo, Leivy apoiados na produção dos curtumes existentes. No ramo químico temos a Quinmanil e a Prema. Praticamente toda industria daquela época tem por base capitais locais

São características da evolução industrial na fase “tradicional” os seguintes aspectos:

1- Pequena capacidade de acumulação de capital do municipio

2- Tímida iniciativa empresarial local,

3- Reduzido número de estabelecimento”motrizes” que exercem efeitos de expansão sobre outras unidades que lhe são relacionadas,

4- Existência das oficinas da Cia. Paulista que empregou grande número de mão-obra local (dando estabilidade aos seus empregados), contribuindo assim para o ritimo pouco acelerado da industrialização de Rio Claro,

5- Precárias condições de abastecimento de energia e água.

No fim da década de 60, Rio Claro possuía “boa qualidade de vida” era uma cidade tranqüila, sem grandes desníveis sociais, porém de lento crescimento industrial e de pequena geração de empregos. O conjunto econômico do município , tradicionalmente centrado na condição de núcleo ferroviário e na produção de bens de consumo direto da população, ressente-se de maior capacidade de acumulação de capital e esta deficIência geral comprometia o pleno desenvolvimento de cada setor”

Fonte: Sampaio, Silvia Selingardi; A Industrialização de Rio Claro: Revista Geografica 12, 1987.

ASPECTO ECONÔMICOS INDUSTRIALIZAÇÃO 3º E 4º FASE: DINÂMICA E DE CONSOLIDAÇÃO

A partir de 1970, segundo Sampaio, inicia-se a terceira fase da industrialização de Rio Claro. É a fase “dinâmica”.

Cria-se o Distrito Industrial com o objetivo de atrair industrias de outros lugares.A cada escolhida dentro do perímetro urbano foi à porção norte da espigão entre os Rios Corumbataí e Ribeirão Claro, com um total de dois milhões de metros quadrados. Juntamente são oferecidos incentivos, facilidades e isenções pelo Governo do Municipio aos empresários interessados em se instalar em nossa cidade. Como facilidades e inventivos podemos citar, doações de terrenos, isenção de imposto predial e territorial, execução de destocamento e limpeza de terrenos, levantamentos topográficos e terraplenagem, fornecimento de água e canalização de esgoto, posteação de concreto para cerca divisória, fornecimento de mão-de-obra , instalação de energia elétrica e telefônica, abertura e construção de ruas internas e externas. ( Mendes, Sampaio). Com estas facilidades, novas industrias se instalaram como a industria de veículos GURGEL que iniciou suas atividades em 1969 e fechou suas portas em 1996, quando foi declarada sua falência. Outras industria escolheram Rio Claro para se fixarem ligados ao gênero “Materiais Plásticos “ que, em 1984, contava com 11 estabelecimentos entre os quais a Tigre a Ladal, Ancel. No gênero”mecânica” surge a mecânica Alfa em outras se expandiram, como a John Crane do Brasil. Na industria “ química” temos a Uniroyal, Pennwalt, Aldoro, Nheel e Quarex. Estas industrias “motrizes” exerceram efeitos multiplicador.

Graças ao capital nacional e estrangeiro a industrialização se desenvolveu rapidamente tanta na produção como no emprego da mão-de-obra. Houve alterações na estrutura dimencional dos estabelecimentos as pequenas unidades, que tornaram a maioria, cederam espaços para as médias e grandes industrias. O emprego do capital em 1987 revela que, nos 25 maiores estabelecimento, 40% externos do município, porem de origem nacional (Sampaio).

Além das facilidades oferecidas acima citadas, contribuíram para que industrias escolhecem Rio Claro para se estabelecer a boa localização geográfica, a localização em região industrial, mão-de-obra abundante e barata, boas vias e meios de transporte, proximidade de São Paulo e centro do estado.

A industrialização impulsionou o processo o processo de urbanização com ampliação da atividade comercial e bancária mas, por outro lado, trouxe efeitos indesejáveis como poluição que comprometem a qualidade de vida e fez desaparecer a cidade “tranqüila”. Surgem congestionamentos especulação imobiliária e novos bairros que exigem infra instrutura .

Acrescento na divisão de Sampaio mais uma fase na industrialização da nossa cidade que começou há 2 ou 3 anos, é a fase atual que chamo de “Consolidação”, pois Rio Claro se transformou e se consolidou como importante centro industrial. Existem 596 empresas (2003) com produção de fibras de vidro, tubos e coneções de PVC, produtos de linha branca (fogões, geladeira e máquinas de lavar), produtos alimentares, produtos de alimentação animal, cerâmicos, instrumentos cirúrgicos e médico-hospitalares. Varias industrias exportam produtos como materiais plásticos, pisos e cerâmicas, balas e pigmentos metálicos. Se em 1999 o valor das exportações era de 30.9 milhões de dólares. Hoje o parque industrial Rio Clarense é responsável por 56% da economia municipal.

Atualmente a administração Municipal está empenhada em atrair novas empresas produtoras de softwares, além de outros gêneros, com expectativa de criar 5.000 novos empregos.

Fonte: Sampaio S.S.A industrialização de Rio Claro, Rv. Geográfica, 1987.
Mendes A.A. Sampaio, S.S. Dinâmica locacional das Industrias, caso de Rio Claro, Ver. Geografia, 1987.
Acirc, Rio Claro, 2003 Palestra Ivan Hussni,
Sebrae, Rio Claro, 2007




Desenvolvimento: Francisco Arisa / Rodrigo Luiz Buzatto

Design Gráfico: Allta Comunicação


Os conteúdos podem ser divulgados, desde que citadas as fontes. Fale com o editor e Anuncie contato@visiterioclaro.com.br
Visite Rio Claro 2005 - 2013. Todos os direitos reservados.

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